Mole-Rat Projects (SAW 2012; DFG, PL 173/8-1 and DA 992/3-1)

Within the framework of the “Joint Initiative Research and Innovation” (PAKT), FLI-researchers wanted to identify molecular networks responsible for a long life in health by means of the naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) and granted by the Leibniz Association (funding line 2). The innovative research approach is a collaboration with the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) in Berlin to analyze molecular networks, which are responsible for an unusually long and healthy life in naked mole-rats.

The Naked Mole-Rat

Mouse-sized naked mole-rats, who live in the East African savanna, are very exciting for age research: they can live as long as 30 years, and they do not suffer from age-related diseases – in contrast to humans and to other rodents. So far, among hundreds of examined animals of this species, only a handful cases of cancer were observed. The rodents are perfectly adapted to a life below ground (zoological family: blesmols, Bathyergidae), they build extensive tunnel systems, which they almost never leave. Under these conditions, they have developed a unique division of labor: like state-building insects (honeybees, ants, termites), only one female mole-rat reproduces; brood care, food-procurement as well as the enlargement and defense of their burrow system are practiced collaboratively.

Astonishingly, the breeding “queen” lives much longer than her conspecifics. It is in total contradiction to the common theory of aging in which organisms invest their energy either in reproduction or in conservation of its body functions. The scientists have several samples from a mole-rat-breeding program as well as samples from free-living mole-rats from international cooperation partners, to explain how mole-rat queens combine extreme physical exertion of consecutive pregnancies with remarkable health and longevity.

Fukomys Mole-Rat

The mouse-sized Ansell's mole-rat and rat-sized giant mole-rat can live longer than 20 years. Since only  few animals could be observed under laboratory conditions so far, it might even be possible that they can life as long as the naked mole-rat. Also in other respects, the two species of the Fukomys genus have much in common with the naked mole-rat: they dig under ground tunnel systems, can be found only in Africa - in the areas southern of the Sahara - and they live in state-like structures with division of labor. Both, the pasha and the queen of a Fukomys mole-rat colony, can reach twice the lifespan of their workers - a difference, which is even larger than in the naked mole-rat. Scientists observe samples from animals of different castes (pasha/queen as well as workers) and of different ages in order to explain the remarkable lifespan differences between castes and, moreover, the longevity of the mole-rats in comparison to much shorter-lived, closely related rodents.

Approach

With the help of modern sequencing technologies, the researchers measured how intense the different genes are transcribed. In addition, they compare sequences of mole-rats to those of shorter lived rodents to identify evolutionary adaptations in genes and metabolic pathways that may be responsible for the longevity of mole-rats.

Collaboration Partners

Publications

2018

Henning Y, Mladěnková N, Burda H, Szafranski* K, Begall* S. (2018) Retinal S-opsin dominance in Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) is a consequence of naturally low serum thyroxine. Sci Rep, 8(1), 4337. *equal contribution [PubMed]

Holtze S, Braude S, Lemma A, Koch R, Morhart M, Szafranski K, Platzer M, Alemayehu F, Goeritz F, Hildebrandt TB. (2018) The microenvironment of naked mole-rat burrows in East Africa. Afr J Ecol (Epub ahead of print). [DOI]

Sahm A, Bens M, Szafranski K, Holtze S, Groth M, Görlach M, Calkhoven C, Müller C, Schwab M, Kraus J, Kestler HA, Cellerino A, Burda H, Hildebrandt T, Dammann P, Platzer M. (2018) Long-lived rodents reveal signatures of positive selection in genes associated with lifespan. PLoS Genet (Epub ahead of print). [PubMed]

2017

Sahm A, Bens M, Platzer M, Szafranski K. (2017) PosiGene: automated and easy-to-use pipeline for genome-wide detection of positively selected gene. Nucleic Acids Res (Epub ahead of print). [PubMed]

2016

Bens M, Sahm A, Groth M, Jahn N, Morhart M, Holtze S, Hildebrandt TB, Platzer M, Szafranski K. (2016) FRAMA: from RNA-seq data to annotated mRNA assemblies. BMC Genomics 17: 54. [PubMed]

Debebe T, Holtze S, Morhart M, Hildebrandt TB, Rodewald S, Huse K, Platzer M, Wyohannes D, Yirga S, Lemma A, Thieme R, Konig B, Birkenmeier G. (2016) Analysis of cultivable microbiota and diet intake pattern of the long-lived naked mole-rat. Gutt Pathog 8: 25 [PubMed]

Dziegelewska M, Holtze S, Vole C, Wachter U, Menzel U, Morhart M, Groth M, Szafranski K, Sahm A, Sponholz C, Dammann P, Huse K, Hildebrandt T, Platzer M. (2016) Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat. Redox Biol 8: 192-198. [PubMed]

2015

Thieme R, Kurz S, Kolb M, Debebe T, Holtze S, Morhart M, Huse K, Szafranski K, Platzer M, Hildebrandt TB, Birkenmeier G. (2015) Analysis of Alpha-2 Macroglobulin from the Long-Lived and Cancer-Resistant Naked Mole-Rat and Human Plasma. PLoS One 10(6), e0130470. [PubMed]

2014

Henning Y, Vole C, Begall S, Bens M, Broecker-Preuss M, Sahm A, Szafranski K, Burda H, Dammann P. (2014) Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing. PLoS One 19;9(11), e113698. [PubMed]

2011

Roellig K, Drews B, Goeritz F, Hildebrandt TB. (2011) The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber RÜPPELL, 1842) studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography. PLoS One 6, e17744. [PubMed]

Yu C, Li Y, Holmes A, Szafranski K, Faulkes CG, Coen CW, Buffenstein R, Platzer M, de Magalhães JP, Church GM. (2011) RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice. PLoS One 6, e26729. [PubMed]

Contact

PD Dr. Matthias Platzer

Matthias Platzer
Coordinator Naked Mole-Rat Project
+49 3641 65-6241
matthias.platzer@leibniz-fli.de

Project Period:
01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014